PQQ is a tiny molecule formerly considered to be a vitamin, although its operations in the human body are not associated with this hypothesized vitamin-like mechanism. Via its actions as a REDOX agent in cells, it can modify signaling and is thought to support mitochondrial function. Pyrroloquinoline quinone (henceforth PQQ) is a small quinone molecule which can be a REDOX agent, capable of reducing oxidants (an antioxidant effect) and then being recycled by glutathione back into an active form.

It appears to be quite stable as it can undergo several thousand cycles before being used up, and it is novel since it associates with protein structures inside the cell (some antioxidants, mostly notably carotenoids like β-carotene and astaxanthin, are located at specific areas of a cell where they exert proportionally more antioxidant effects due to proximity; Pyrroloquinoline quinone acid powder at seems to do this near protein like carotenoids do so at the cell membrane).


The aforementioned REDOX functions can alter protein function and signaling pathways, and while there is a lot of promising in vitro (outside of a living model) research on what it could do there are only a few promising results of PQQ supplementation, mostly related to either altering some signaling pathways or via its benefits to mitochondria (producing more of them and increasing their efficiency).

It is a coenzyme in bacteria but this function does not resemble to elongate to humans. Considering this seems not to stretch to humans, the classification of PQQ as a vitamin mixture has befallen within and it is simply recognized ‘vitamin-like’ as a whole.PQQ seems to modify oxidation in a cell after binding to some proteins, and this modulatory role it plays can alter the signaling processes that go on in a cell.

Due to PQQ comprising a REDOX agent (proficient of both reducing and oxidizing) it is not a true antioxidant, but it is included in a cyclical antioxidative series with an antioxidant enzyme identified as glutathione. For human evidence, the limited evidence we have right now suggests a possible neuroprotective role in the aged (no research in clinical situations of neurodegeneration nor youth) and it may have an anti-inflammatory role.

This limited evidence also suggests that the main claim of PQQ, enhancement of mitochondrial function, occurs in otherwise healthy humans given PQQ supplementation. A large amount of the evidence for a direct antioxidant role or the neurological actions related to NMDA signaling of PQQ seems to use very high concentrations in cells, due to possible transportation issues to the brain and low concentrations of PQQ found in the blood following oral ingestion.


PQQ is a very effective nootropic that everyone should include in their stack of choice. It may provide you with more energy like Resveratrol, improved sleep, and enhanced memory in addition to some possible other benefits. There’s a lot to be gained from taking PQQ.